Cum functioneaza ecranul unui cinematograf?

Cum functioneaza ecranul unui cinematograf?O data cu aparitia si dezvoltarea internetului site-urile cu filme online si-au facut si ele aparitia, unele dintre ele ajungand chiar extrem de populare.

Astazi, tinerii prefera sa urmareasca filme online nou-aparute, acasa, in fata propriului computer, ca mai apoi, daca filmele sunt intr-adevar bune, sa mearga si la cinema pentru a trai experienta HD sau 3D.

Cu totii am fost cel putin o data la cinema, insa cati dintre noi s-au intrebat cum functioneaza acel ecran pe care sunt proiectate filmele? Vom incerca sa oferim un raspuns in cele ce urmeaza.

Chiar daca sunteti un amator de filme sau un cinefil inrait, este posibil sa nu va fi gandit niciodata la cum functioneaza ecranul pe care filmul este proiectat. Multi dintre noi suntem vrajiti de ceea ce se proiecteaza pe acesta incat nu ne mai gandim la ecran.

Insa, daca stam sa ne gandim putin, vom vedea ca ecranele reprezinta un element crucial al experientei cinematografice si, totodata, unul dintre cele mai importante dispozitive pe care il putem gasi intr-o sala de cinema.

La prima vedere, aceste ecrane par extrem de simple, doar un dreptunghi mare de plastic de culoare alba. Insa, la o privire mai atenta se dovedeste ca exista, de fapt, o mare cantitate de tehnologie si design implicate in creare unui astfel de ecran.

Ecranul

Daca mergem intr-un cinematograf pentru a vedea un film, exista sanse mari ca acesta sa fie proiectat pe un ecran. Ecranul pe care se proiecteaza filmele este realizat, de obicei din vinil greu de culoare alba si este clasificat dupa cantitatea de lumina pe care o reflecta.

Exista patru categorii principale de astfel de ecrane (le vom reda cu denumirile din engleza):

1.    Matte white – mai putin de 5 % reflexie, negrul este foarte inchis si imaginea nu este foarte luminoasa;

2.    Pearlescent – 15 % reflexie, negrul merge spre gri, iar imaginea este luminoasa si ofera cel mai bun contrast de ansamblu;

3.    Silver – 30 % reflexie, negrul merge spre un gri mediu, iar imaginea este foarte luminoasa, culorile inchise pot parea putin mate;

4.    Glass bead – 40 % sau chiar mai mult reflexie, negrul merge spre gri deschis, iar imaginea este, de obicei, prea luminoasa; un astfel de ecran este folosit numai in circumstante speciale.

Ecranul de tip Pearlescent este, probabil, cea mai obisnuita alegere pentru un cinematograf tipic. Pentru a face un astfel de ecran sau unul de tip Silver, se adauga un strat reflectorizant peste vinilul alb mat. Un ecran de tip Glass bead are in componenta mii de margele de sticla foarte mici incorporate in stratul transparent de la suprafata ecranului.

Ecranele pentru filme sunt concepute nu doar pentru a prezenta o pelicula mare, dar, de asemenea, pentru a sustine sistemul de sunet al cinematografului. Cele mai multe dintre ecrane prezinta perforatii mici, astfel incat publicul sa fie capabil sa auda boxele amplasate in spatele acestora.

Intr-un cinematograf obisnuit vom gasi trei boxe in spatele ecranului, situate la stanga, in centru si la dreapta. Acest lucru face ca sunetul sa para mult mai realist, in special atunci cand cineva vorbeste.

De ce nu reusesc sa slabesc?

De ce nu reusesc sa slabesc?Unii oameni ar da oricat sa slabeasca, insa nu oricum, ci sanatos. Unii isi cumpara benzi de alergat de pe http://www.expertfitness.ro/benzi-de-alergat , altii merg la sala.

Unii alearga prin parc, altii fac abdomene si lista poate continua. Fiecare persoana incearca sa gaseasca tipurile de exercitii care ajuta la obtinerea greutatii ideale.

Unii insa, oricat ar incerca, nu reusesc. Chiar daca isi cumpara si benzi de alergat si steppere sau alte aparate de fitness, rezultatele nu apar. De ce? Pentru ca nu e totul sa ai astfel de aparate, sau sa faci exercitii cu ele si nimic mai mult.

Ne place sau nu, deseori facem anumite greseli care mai mult ne incurca decat ne ajuta sa slabim. Care sunt motivele pentru care adesea oamenii nu reusesc sa dea jos kilogramele in plus?

•    Lipsa vointei si a perseverentei

Foarte adesea cei care se lupta cu kilogramele in plus nu au vointa necesara pentru a face sport, sau pentru a manca adecvat. Din moment ce nu iti doresti cu adevarat, nu ai cum sa reusesti. Trebuie sa ai in tine o vointa arzatoare si sa pornesti pe acest drum cat se poate de hotarat/a. Chiar daca rezultatele nu apar imediat, continua, deoarece cu siguranta vor aparea.

•    Alimentatia neadecvata

Nu e totul sa faci sport. Degeaba tragi la sala 2 ore pe zi, daca vii acasa si mananci cartofi prajiti si ciocolata. Trebuie sa ai grija ce anume mananci, iar alimentatia ta sa se bazeze foarte mult pe legume, carne slaba si fructe. Nu cred ca reuseste nimeni sa slabeasca manacand shaorma sau friptura de porc, in fiecare zi. Ai nevoie de o alimentatie pe masura, si vei vedea cum lucrurile se shimba in bine. Si nu uita, alimentatia sanatoasa este mana in mana cu sportul si invers.

•    Retii apa in organism

Aceasta problema este intalnita destul de des la persoanele care doresc sa slabeasca. Ce se intampla de fapt? Consumi prea multa sare, nu bei suficienta apa si apare retentia apei in tesuturi. Ce trebuie sa faci? Bea apa suficienta si consuma mai putina sare. Doar asa vei reusi sa slabesti.

•    Odihna inadecvata

Studiile au aratat faptul ca persoanele care nu dorm suficient au un risc de 75% mai mare de a suferi din pricina kilogramelor in plus. Ai in vedere si acest aspect, deoarece este foarte important.

•    Stres

Traim intr-o lume in care nivelul de stres al fiecarei persoane este din ce in ce mai mare. Se pare ca stresul incetineste metabolismul, asftel fiind mai greu sa scapi de kilogramele in plus. Incearca sa iti traiesti viata astfel incat sa fii mai putin stresat/a. Este greu, insa inceaca macar sa nu te stresezi pentru lucruri care nu merita atentia ta.

•    Diferite afectiuni

Sunt persoane care au anumite boli care le impiedica sa slabeasca. Insa, nu uita ca nu e la toata lumea la fel. Poti spune acest lucru abia dupa ce ti-ai facut un control la medic. Nu fa o scuza din faptul ca e posibil ca din cauza unei boli sa nu poti slabi, cand tu de fapt nu esti perseverent/a in miscare, sau mananci total neadecvat.

Acestea sunt o parte din aspectele care ne impiedica sa dam jos kilogramele care sunt in plus. Mare atentie la ele si incearca sa faci actiuni care te ajuta. Trebuie  sa le eviti pe cele de evitat si sa le practici mai mult pe cele care iti fac bine.

Rotogravure – a short history

Rotogravure – a short history
Rotogravure is an example of intaglio printing or in depth printing. The intaglio printing term was originally used to describe printing techniques in which the image is engraved on a metal surface. In Italian, the word “intaglio” means gravure.

The technique was invented in Germany in the first half of the fifteenth century, being inspired by the method used by jewelry artisans. The precision and finesse of the lines obtained, made the intaglio technique to be introduced to manufacture banknotes, starting from the eighteenth century as follows: 1772 – Germany, 1810 – USA 1841 – Austria, 1866 – Russia, 1890 – Sweden.

Up until the nineteenth century printing processes – including those used for the production of bills – were predominantly artisanal, using semi-industrial processes and only the discoveries of the early twentieth century made possible their industrialization. Regarding in depth printing (intaglio), first patented printing systems are dating from 1860 (France) and allowed web-fed printing processes on both sides-  a process called rotogravure – whereas the first sheet fed, in depth machines were built in 1913 in Germany. The first such printing press, was made in 1913, by the Schnellpressenfabrik Frankenthal Albert & Cie.

Until the mid-twentieth century the intaglio printing of banknotes has been made only in one color. In 1947, Gualtiero Giora designed and built the first intaglio printing machine that allowed printing three or more colors, simultaneously. The machine was based on the previous inventions of the engineers Orloff and Beaune. Giora Gualtiero is regarded as the “father” of banknotes production, as it is currently, for his inventions revolutionized the banknotes printing industry.

So far, we have seen that the intaglio printing, rotogravure, in depth printing or whatever you would like to call it, is closely related to the one thing that sets the world in motion, money. But let us find out what makes this technique so special and for that we should look at the characteristics of the intaglio printing technology in money making: the thickness of the ink layer deposited on the substrate may be up to 100 times bigger than the one applied using the offset method; areas are printed in relief; colors are more vivid.

Some other special features refer to the printing plate (the engraved plate) that comes directly in contact with the substrate. Ink is taken from the depths of the engraved plate under the action of very high pressures exerted on the substrate. The result is a deformation phenomenon of the substrate – embossing – which amplifies the effect of relief of intaglio printed areas.

Using the same printing plate, multiple inks can be submitted on the same banknote and an item on the same banknote can be printed in multiple colors, limited not necessarily parallel to the direction of the paper advancing into the machine. Engravings made on the printing plate may have different depths and thicknesses, and a variable height and thickness line of the printed items. The accurate reproduction of minute details and contrasts, allows conveying human face expression.

But what other nice surprises hide behind the rotogravure process? This method of printing being the fastest, is able to print starting from labels to rolls up to several meters wide. Considering the high color transfer capability, this type of printing is often the ideal choice for high quality printing or photographic reproductions. Rotogravure printing is used for high-volume projects like magazines with more than 1 million copies, or mail forwarding catalogs.

If you are looking for equipment for rotogravure printing, whether used or new feel free to check out http://usedpresses.org/used-rotogravure-printing-machines/.  And there are quite some reasons to do so among which: high start-up costs and the rather expensive new rotogravure presses and spare parts that certainly favour the used rotogravure presses.

How to travel from Birmingham to Gatwick?

How to travel from Birmingham to Gatwick?
Very often we are thinking about travelling and seeing a lot of places so that we can have a lot of memories stock in our minds for a long period of time.

But sometimes, it is for the best to organise your trip in the smallest details even with long time before, and that means that you have to consider everything, starting from the objectives to be visited until the transportation methods, meaning the bus, the train or a taxi Birmingham to Gatwick, which may seem like the best solution for you.

Taking a taxi Birmingham to Gatwick means that the distance of 155 miles will take a few more than two hours, but in this time you will be in complete safety and you will enjoy an experience that other people just dream of.


You may think than a ride with a taxi would cost a lot, but in the same time you will find out that this isn’t quite true. After making an analogy with other local companies that offer similar services we can realise that the prices are even better and that comes in the situation in which the conditions are way over an usual taxi transfer company.

The United Kingdoms have a lot to offer in general. When it comes to business, here the speculate is even greater than in other countries. Not every company is looking to satisfy the client needs, most of them are just looking after profit, short term profit, and leave aside the needs of the one who pays the fees. A company with great name all over England is 365airporttransfers.com. Here you will find real specialists who can guide you through all your needs, and who can transport you and your goods to anywhere you need.

Now, you must not think that taking such a company you you fly on the wheels like in the famous series “Taxi”, but the sensation in similar to that. Fast and comfortable, and not very expensive, these are the criteria that define the company mentioned before. The clean cars are staying at your disposal, the polite drivers are being there for you along the fabulous journey.

So no more stress, no more problems caused by the delays or other unpredicted situations. A company that gives such services will be in permanence close to your needs. You may look at it as to a business, which it is of course, but beyond these someone who runs a mobility business like this must be careful to a lot of factors.

The safety, the professionalism, the maintenance of the car, the drivers, these mean a lot of expenses. But for the professionals this means respect for the customers, and good reviews later on. Maybe you should try them. Maybe you should give yourself the chance to see how is it to be a real star in a small car, even for the few hours that the journey lasts. Convince yourself! Fell free to do that!

Knights of Malta, the champions of Christian Europe

Knights of Malta, the champions of Christian EuropeIn the winter of 1522, order of johns was expelled from their native territory, the Rhodos island, by an Ottoman army. More than 40 years after the event, Suleyman the Great sent a fleet against their new locations, the shabby island of Malta. Again, johns were forced to fight for survival in the Mediterranean.

On the morning of June 23, 1565, thousands of Ottoman pounce the fortress of St. Elmo on next main port of Malta. Behind the walls were waiting 1,500 warriors of Johns order. They were under siege for more than a month, constantly bombarded and with lack of supplies.

They were hopeless against Ottoman plague that within a few hours managed to kill all but nine intrepid who managed to swim to the fortress of St.. Angelo, the other side of the harbor. Several knights were killed crucified on trunks that were activating the port intrance. The defenders of the fortress of St. Angelo responded to the challenge by decapitating prisoners and loading cannons with heads that were fired to the Ottoman camp. Read More →